In this instance the issue was occurring because we did not fully patch the SharePoint environment correctly, there were still some update files missing which were in turn causing issues/errors.
Refer to this link for the January 2018 CU for SharePoint Server 2016.
Now pay attention to the part that says: "Important: It is required to install both fixes to fully patch a SharePoint server as each SharePoint installation comes with a language independent component and a language dependent component. If additional language packs are added later (only) the language dependent fix has to be applied again."
This means that to fully patch your SharePoint Server you will need to install both the language independent (KB4011642) and language dependent (KB4011645) fixes as per the link above.
Only one of the above updates were installed which in the end resulted in the issues presented.
After a discussion with Microsoft Support we were advised that the correct way to install the required patch is to follow these steps:
1. Install the first update (Language Independent)
2. Run the SP Config Wizard
3. Install the second update (Language Dependent)
4. Run the SP Config Wizard
5. Install a Language Pack (If any is required)
6. Run the SP Config Wizard.